What is "APA"?
The American Psychological Association (APA) has produced a publication manual that includes all of the rules that you need to know to produce a manuscript that conforms to their standards. This manual, now in the 5th edition, has been accepted as the gold standard by many academic disciples. Other common academic style manuals include The Chicago Manual of Style and The Modern Language Association Style Manual, (also known as "Chicago" and "MLA"). If you are a graduate student, it is a really good idea to purchase the style manual accepted by the majority of the faculty in your department. In Special Education at UNM, you should purchase the APA manual. It is available in the campus bookstore. Make sure you get the most recent (5th) edition.
Actually, these manuals have a real reason for being, other than driving students crazy. By providing a uniform way of presenting information, these style guides assist the writer in preparing their papers in a manner that will be understood by most readers. For example, because the information needed for a reference to be complete is specified, readers are assured that they can obtain a copy of a particular cited work themselves, if they are interested. Without ALL of the parts of a citation, references can be near impossible to track down.
What’s really important?
Each style manual has many, many rules, most of which the vast majority of students do not need to learn in detail. There are, however, a few major areas that you should pay attention to:
- page margins
- type styles and fonts
- citations of sources
- reducing bias in language
Just the Facts, Ma’am
The following are just a FEW of the most important rules. For more information, check out the manual (make sure you get the 6th edition) and/or go to the APA website.
Format: All papers should be double-spaced throughout, (including the reference section) with one inch margins all around. Do not add extra lines between paragraphs or sections. The font should be 12 pt and you need to use a "serif" type style (with the hooks and curly-cues), such as Times or Courier. All paragraphs should be indented half an inch, NOT five spaces. Only one space should be added between the period at the end of a sentence and the first letter of the next.
Headings: These tell the reader how your text is organized -- they are VERY important. You need to decide how many levels of headings you will need, before you can figure out what they look like. For example, many college papers will have at least two levels. The first level includes the major categories, such as the introduction, whatever you name the body of your paper, and the conclusion or discussion (or both). You may then also want several sub-categories in the body of your text. For example, if you are writing about theories of second language development, you would use a sub heading for each of the major theories you discuss. If you then break any of these categories into smaller groups, you would need at least one additional level.
If you are using only two levels, the first level of heading (i.e. introduction) should be centered in upper and lower case letters. The next level should be flush to the left margin (NOT indented), italicized, in upper and lower case letters. If you use a third level, that heading should be indented, italicized, with only the first letter of the first word in upper case AND it should be followed with a period, after which you write your first sentence, without using a paragraph return. If you use more than three levels of headings, you need to check the APA manual for the correct format.
Quotations and citations are extremely important. These rules help you to clearly identify where you got your information. The reader needs to know whether you obtained the information from some source or whether that provided is your own interpretation. If you do not make this clear, you could run into concerns about plagiarism. To avoid this, you absolutely need to indicate WHO said WHAT, WHEN and WHERE.
When you include information from an outside source, you will typically either 1) paraphrase the original author’s words or 2) use a direct quote, writing down EXACTLY what was written in the original text. To avoid plagiarizing when you paraphrase, you need to change both the content AND form of the information you read -- it is not enough to shuffle the words around (from passive to active voice, for example) or substitute synonyms within the same sentence structure. If you are having difficulty paraphrasing something without falling into this trap, you should consider including direct quotes, (which you indicate with quotations marks), from the material in question.
With direct quotes you MUST include the page number(s) of the original source, along with the author(s) last name(s) and the year of the publication. The full reference then must be included in the reference section. If you are able to paraphrase the information, or you just want to refer to a work in general, you only need to include the author(s) last name(s) and the year of publication (and then, of course, include the full citation in the reference section too). There are several ways you can do in-text citations, such as in the following examples:
- According to Smith (1989), life can be pretty exciting.
- Life can sometimes be pretty exciting (Smith, 1989).
- "Yahoo!" (Smith, 1989, p. 3).
- Talking about life, Smith (1989) said "Yahoo!" (p. 3).
Formatting your references: Your reference list starts on a new page and should have the word 'References' centered at the top of the page (not bold, not underlined, and only the first letter capitalized). All references must be double spaced. Do not add an extra line in between references. The new (6th) edition of the APA manual has gone back to the old style of using "hanging indents," which means that the first line of each reference goes all the way to the left margin, with the following lines of each reference indented. You can set this up on your computer by using the ruler at the top of your screen. Drag the bottom triangle to the right by 1/2 an inch, leaving the top triangle all the way to the left (the opposite of how you set your paragraph indents). That should make all of your author names stick out to the left, while indenting the rest of each reference.
Where do I put the periods and commas? The APA manual provides the format for each kind of citation you might use, such as journal articles, web sites, conference presentations, etc. You need to look up the correct format in the manual.It is really important for students taking graduate level classes to own a current copy of the APA manual. For an example of a reference section formatted in APA that includes journal articles, chapters from edited books, and authored books, click here* For up-to-date information about citating electronic sources (i.e. web pages) follow this link: http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html. This does not, however, replace the need to own your own copy of the APA manual.
Additional resources can be found at the Purdue Online Writing Lab (see this specific page on using APA format).
** To view PDF documents you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader. Click here to download a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader
Understanding line and paragraph spacing in Word
August 1, 2010 at 2:17 pm
In Word, there are two types of spacing: line spacing and paragraph spacing. Both are attributes of paragraph formatting that can be configured via the Paragraph dialog, but they work differently. Line spacing affects the distance between lines of text within a paragraph, and paragraph spacing affects the distance (i.e., the white space) between paragraphs.
Line spacing options in Word include conventional single and double spacing, plus a few additional choices. Before exploring the other choices, it’s worth discussing single and double spacing, which are not — contrary to what you might think — entirely self-explanatory.
The Role of “Leading” in Single and Double Spacing
Many people probably assume that the “simple” line-spacing options — single and double spacing — merely reflect multiples of the point size of the font they are using. If that were so, single-spacing with any 12-point font would produce lines of text that are 12 points in height and double-spacing would produce lines of text that are 24 points in height. (As a reminder, there are 72 points to an inch; thus, 12 points is 1/6 of an inch and 24 points is 1/3 of an inch.)
However, that formulation leaves out one crucial factor. In order to improve readability, single and double spacing add a certain amount of vertical distance — in the form of white space — between lines of text, an aspect of typography known as “leading” (pronounced as if it were spelled “ledding”). The amount of leading varies depending on which font you are using (not all 12-point fonts are equal). Typically, single-spaced lines range from 110% to 135% of the font size. For example, let’s say you select Times New Roman, a font that is common in legal documents. If you set the font size at 12 points and apply single spacing, the true height of your lines of text will be roughly 115% to 120% of the point size, or 13.8 to 14.4 points. The line height might be different with a different font, such as Arial, Courier New, or Helvetica, even if you set the font size at 12 points.
Similarly, double spacing usually runs 220% to 270% of the size of your chosen font. So, sticking with our example, using Times New Roman at 12 points and applying double spacing will result in lines that are spaced approximately 27.6 to 28.8 points apart.
This phenomenon — the vertical expansion caused by “leading” when you use single spacing or double spacing in Word — explains a number of confusing issues, including why it can be difficult to align text with the line numbers in pleading paper. (The Pleading Wizard, a utility used to generate pleading paper in versions of Word prior to Word 2007, sets an “Exact” point size for the numbered lines, such as 22.75 points, that is smaller than standard double spacing. Because double-spaced body text is “taller” than the line numbers, the text and the numbers quickly get out of sync.)
To get a feel for how much extra spacing leading adds, select a 12-point font and type a brief paragraph (make sure it’s at least two lines long). First, set the line spacing to single. Then change the line spacing to Exactly 12 points. Try the same experiment with the line spacing set to double and then to Exactly 24 points. You’ll notice a tremendous difference.
The moral of the story: If you don’t want Word to expand your text vertically, don’t use single or double spacing. Instead, use an “Exactly” setting, such as Exactly 12 points or Exactly 24 points. (In pleadings, you’ll need to choose a setting for the body text that matches the spacing of the numbered lines. For a longer discussion of this point, see my earlier post, “Aligning text with pleading line numbers”.)
The New Default Line Spacing
As if matters weren’t confusing enough, Microsoft changed the default line spacing to 1.15 lines in Word 2007 and Word 2010 and to 1.08 lines in Word 2013 and Word 2016. The default setting in older versions is single spacing, which — notwithstanding the additional vertical space resulting from leading — is substantially more compact than the new setting.
It’s easy to change the default line spacing, however. Simply open the Paragraph dialog, set the spacing according to your preferences, then (1) in Word 2007, click the “Default” button, then click “Yes” and click “OK”; (2) in Word 2010, click the “Set As Default” button, click the “All documents based on the normal.dotm template” option, then click “OK” twice.
Additional Line Spacing Options
Besides single spacing and double spacing, Word offers four additional line spacing options: 1.5 lines, “Exactly,” “At Least,” and “Multiple.” The 1.5 line option is similar enough to single and double spacing that it doesn’t merit further discussion here.
As for the other options, “Exactly” enables you to choose a highly precise line spacing that remains fixed, whereas “At Least” gives you the option of specifying a minimum line spacing and letting Word adjust the height if necessary to accommodate graphics such as drop caps (or other characters) that wouldn’t otherwise fit. (This option presumably is used widely in desktop publishing but, for obvious reasons, isn’t suitable for pleadings or any similar type of document that is subject to strict formatting rules.)
The “Multiple” option is used for setting line spacing at an interval other than single, double, or 1.5. For example, if you wanted triple spacing, you would use the “Multiple” option and type “3” in the “At” box. (The new default line spacing of 1.15 involves the “Multiple” option.)
“Exactly” can be important when you are working on pleadings. As mentioned earlier, the process of generating pleading paper usually results in line numbering that does not use true double-spacing. For technical reasons, the line numbers on pleading paper often are spaced 22.75 points apart (or some similar figure). In order to get the text of the pleading to align properly with the line numbers, you have to make sure the line spacing of the text matches that of the line numbers (which you can determine by going into the document’s header, clicking somewhere within the line numbering, and then launching the Paragraph dialog and viewing the setting for the line spacing). If it doesn’t match, you’ll have to select the text and change the setting via the “Exactly” option.
Paragraph Spacing (“Before” and “After” Spacing)
By contrast with line spacing, paragraph spacing refers to the space between paragraphs. You can tell Word to insert extra space automatically before a paragraph, after a paragraph, or both. For example, if you want Word to insert one blank line between paragraphs, you can set the “Spacing After” to 12 points, the rough equivalent (as we now know) of a standard single-spaced line. Or you can set both the “Spacing Before” and the “Spacing After” to 6 points (about half a line).
When using one or both of these options, test them first to see if they work in a given situation. Sometimes you can end up with too much (or not enough) space between paragraphs.
“Before” and “After” spacing often are incorporated into styles for body text and headings in order to achieve uniform spacing between paragraphs in a document.
Because “Before” and/or “After” spacing automatically add white space between paragraphs, you’ll have to get into the habit of not pressing the Enter key twice to move the cursor to the next paragraph.
“Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style”
In all versions of Word from 2007 through 2016, there is an additional item in the Paragraph dialog labeled “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.” If the option is enabled (i.e., the box to the left of the option is checked), Word will ignore your “Before” and/or “After” settings.
Microsoft applies this setting to certain built-in styles but not to others. It is disabled by default for the Normal paragraph style, which means you can increase the “Before” and/or “After” paragraph spacing for text using the Normal style and your changes will go into effect as you expect. On the other hand, the setting is enabled by default for bulleted and numbered lists, which means that items (paragraphs) in the list will not be separated by white space unless you specifically insert such space manually.
If you have configured Before and/or After spacing to add space between paragraphs but Word appears to be ignoring your settings, open the Paragraph dialog and note whether “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style” is checked. If it is, close the dialog, select the list (or other text) to which you want to add Before and/or After spacing, reopen the Paragraph dialog, uncheck the option, reset the Before and/or After spacing if necessary, and click “OK.” Now your extra Before and/or After spacing should go into effect as you intended.
 In all versions of Word, you can open the paragraph dialog by using the keyboard shortcut Alt O, P. In versions of Word prior to Word 2007, you also have the option of clicking the Format menu, Paragraph; in Word 2007 and Word 2010, you can click the dialog launcher at the lower right corner of the Paragraph group in the Home tab.
 There is some confusion / disagreement over the exact amount of leading typically produced with Times New Roman. Pinpointing this figure is less important to me than making sure that readers understand the general concept and also have a sense of the approximate degree to which the text will expand if you use single or double spacing, rather than an “Exact” figure.
 Microsoft also changed the “Normal” paragraph style by adding 10 points of “After” spacing in Word 2007 and Word 2010 and 8 points of “After” spacing in Word 2013 and Word 2016. See the following sections for an explanation of “Before” and “After” spacing.
 “Before” and “After” spacing can be configured independently, of course.
 Note that even with the box checked, you’ll be able to add space between paragraphs manually—i.e., by pressing the Enter key.
Entry filed under: Uncategorized.
Changing the default document settings in WordPerfectMy new column on the Legal IT Professionals site