Genre Theory Bibliography Definition

"A predilection for genre fiction is symptomatic of a kind of arrested development." -Thomas M. Disch


A bibliographic ‘genre’ is a classificatory technique designed to describe a piece of literature that conforms to a set of agreed upon characteristics, for example Westerns are stories usually set in the American West during the latter half of the nineteenth century and Urban Fantasies are novels set in a contemporary environment that contain supernatural elements. In broad terms, bibliographic genres can be described as “vague categories with no fixed boundaries, they are formed by sets of conventions (1)” Alternatively, genres “may be determined by literary technique, tone, content, or even (as in the case of fiction) length.(2)”

Etimologically – the word genre comes from Old French for “kind, sort, style (3)” and the study of what constitutes a genre and how individual examples of writing reflect on or represent the established conventions of a genre is known as ‘Genre Studies'.


The classification of bibliographic materials can be observed as early as the Ancient Greeks. Typically the Ancient Greeks classified their writing into poetry, drama, or prose often with subdivisions (tragic or comedic drama etc.) that defined their genres.

The classification of bibliographic materials such as plays continued to evolve as more genres were described. During Elizabethan times, Shakespeare mocked the over categorization of bibliographic types in his play Hamlet when the character of Polonius, in discussing the range the actors in an upcoming performance enumerated a list of genres performed by “…the best actors in the world … tragedy, comedy, history, pastoral, pastoral-comical, historical-pastoral, tragical-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral, scene individable, or poem unlimited (Hamlet II, ii)”

During the Renaissance, neoclassic philosophers believed these classic genres should remain distinct entities. This belief was carried so far as to have had ‘rules’ defining each classical genre that regulated subject matter, structure, styles, and emotional effect (4).

Later, during the 18th century, new genres were being recognized such as the novel, the lyric poem, the biography, etc. These new genres, which, along with new types of non-genre and broadly applicable evaluatory criteria (such as ‘sincerity’, ‘intensity’, and ‘organic unity’) resulted in a “decreasing emphasis on the generic conception in literature” (Abrams 109). The devaluation of genre continued into the mid-twentieth century, where the adherents of New Criticism “with its ruling concept of the uniqueness of each literary work, [created a climate where] genre ceased to play more than a subordinate roles in critical analysis and evaluation (5)”.

Today, Genres behave more like family resemblances, in that they illuminate flavors of fiction. “Genres, once so easy to codify, are becoming increasingly difficult to pigeonhole (6)”. Bibliographic conventions evolved and shifted over time and “...many works cross into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions (7)”. Today, genre blending is very commonplace making genre definition more problamatic. Agreeing to what is or is not a genre is difficult although there is some agreement over what a modern genre is not. A modern genre is not a literary technique (parody, Frame story, constrained writing, stream of consciousness.), an age category (adult, young-adult, or childrens ) or a format, (graphic novel or picture book) rather that Genre reflects more the thematic character of a piece of literature (character, setting, etc).(8)


The application of genre to the classification and cataloguing of books can best be extemporized in the physical arrangement of books in libraries and bookstores. Libraries mostly display their fiction books alphabetical by author, but often times have either sub-collections, genre specific spine labels or both to distinguish fiction genres while their non-fiction is shelved principally by Dewey Decimal Number. Bookstores frequently use the BISAC system.

Using the Library of Congress Subject Classification to standardize subject headings, libraries then shelve according to the Dewey number that that subject (if it is non-fiction) represents most well (and books end frequently end up being grouped by genre such as cookbooks, travel books, computer programming books). According to the Library of Congress: “Authority records enable librarians to provide uniform access to materials in library catalogs and to provide clear identification of authors and subject headings. For example, works about ‘movies’, ‘motion pictures’, ‘cinema’, and ‘films’ are all entered under the established subject heading "Motion pictures (9)". New subject terms become a way to recognize and legitimize new genres and are often the subject of debate (10)(no steampunk, but Chick Lit and Paranormal Romance are represented as subjects). Once a subject term has been established and becomes retrievable online via the OPAC it facilitates physical retrieval on the shelves through the use of genre specific labels (if the genre collection is not automatically pulled out and shelved separately). Demco, for example, is one of several companies supplying materials to libraries produces subject genre spine-labels that give libraries an enormous amount of flexibility in the type of genres they want to promote to their readers.

Bookstores, on the other hand, often use the BISAC system for bibliographic classification. “BISAC Subject Headings can determine where books are shelved in a brick and mortar store or the genre(s) under which they can be searched for in an internal database. BISAC Subject Headings describe the topical content of a book and do not cover non-content-oriented ways of grouping titles (such as 'gift books') … Merchandising Themes are closely related to Subject Headings,” Bookstore then lay out their wares in this classificatory method. Being a for-profit enterprise they are actively looking for new classificatory trends to encourage discovery (and purchase) of books by readers and in many ways can be more responsive to changing trends or reader demands than libraries for whom changing all the cataloguing records and book labels would be very expensive (in materials and staffing) and subsequently have resulted in the DDC being viewed as obsolete and unresponsive (200's dominated by Christian Religion, the dictionaries seperated from the books on writing and literature etc).

Current Trends

As the methods used by readers to discover literature evolves and the speed at which new genres are created and blended increases, both libraries and bookstores have to quickly adapt in order to aid in product discovery. Most bibliographically inclined websites (such as Amazon or Library Thing) offer user tagging of their books and usually offer tag clouds of a books most popular tags, or most popular tags. These tagging tools can be used to track changes in genre categorization by readers and book lovers. For example Good Reads has a Top Shelf which displays users most used tags including everybody's favorite To-Read.

Recommended Resources

Quotes about Genre (bibliographic, film, etc).

Duff, David. Modern Genre Theory. Longman Publishing Group, 1999.

A book of essays by some of the major theorists in modern Genre Theory, this collection, was published by the Longman Publishing Group (one of the oldest English commercial publishers) and contains writings by Mikhail Bakhtin, Gerard Genette and Jacques Derrida. This is an anthology collection that attempts to illuminate new theories in Genre studies and highlight some modern developments. Very illuminating.

Frow, John. Genre. New edition. Routledge, 2005.

This updated and comprehensive work on Genre explores topics such as the relation of simple to complex genres, the history of literary genre in theory, the structuring of interpretation by genre, and the uses of genre in teaching. Part of the New Critical Idiom Series from Routledge edited by John Drakakis it discusses the basics usch as what is Genre and how do we use it to categorize literature. This work on Genre sets out to understand “genre as a dynamic process rather than a set of stabel ruules (from product description).”

Herald, Diana Tixier. Genreflecting. 6th ed. Libraries Unlimited, 2005.

Genreflecting is an excellent beguinning reference resource for students (particular those with an english literature focus) or librarians who wish to explore varous iterations of bibliographic Genres. Along with lists of specific Genre Authors that they can peruse, there are very several clear discussions of the various genres and well as lists of recommended books arranged along themes, types, & topics within each category. The author also offers genre specific reading advice and cautions. A basic print resource but becoming outdated as readers and librarians relay increasingly on online book communities to keep their recommendations up to date.

Article Citations

1. 2. 3. 4. Abrams, M.H. Glossary of Literary Terms. 7th ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 1998. p 108. 5. Abrams, M.H. Glossary of Literary Terms. 7th ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 1998. p 108. 6. Herald, Diana Tixier. Genreflecting. 6th ed. Libraries Unlimited, 2005. p xiii. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Additional Bibliography

  • Abrams, M.H. Glossary of Literary Terms. 7th ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 1998.
  • Brown, Richard Harvey. “Toward a Sociology of Aesthetic Forms: A Commentary.” New Literary History 17.2 (1986): 223-228.
  • Dubrow, Heather. Genre. Methuen young books, 1982.
  • Duff, David. Modern Genre Theory. Longman Publishing Group, 1999.
  • Frow, John. Genre. New edition. Routledge, 2005.
  • Herald, Diana Tixier. Genreflecting. 6th ed. Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
  • Hernadi, Paul. Beyond Genre: New Directions in Literary Classification. Cornell University Press, 1973.
  • Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Penguin Classics, 2003.
  • Rosmarin, Adena. The Power of Genre. Minnesota Archive Editions. Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1986.


Basic Concepts

Abrams, M.H. 1999. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Seventh Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.

Ahrens, Rüdiger et al., eds. 1995. Handbuch Englisch als Fremdsprache. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Barthes, Roland. 1988 [1968]. “The Death of the Author.” Modern Criticism and Theory. A Reader. Ed. David Lodge. London/New York: Longman: 167-172.

Bassnett, Susan. 1997. Studying British Cultures. London: Routledge.

Bromley, Rogers; Jessica Munns and Gita Rajan, eds. 1995. A Cultural Studies Reader: History, Theory, Practice. London/New York: Longman.

Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. 1976. Understanding Poetry. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Corbett, Edward P.J. 1971. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. New York: Oxford UP.

Culler, Jonathan. 1997. Literary Theory. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Derrida, Jacques. 1978. “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences.” Writing and Difference. Ed. Jacques Derrida. Boston/London: Routledge: 278-293.

Drabble, Margaret, ed. 2000. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Duff, David, ed. 2000. Modern Genre Theory. Harlow: Longman.

Eagleton, Terry. 1996. Literary Theory. An Introduction. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Eagleton, Terry and Drew Milne, eds. 1996. Marxist Literary Theory. A Reader. Oxford/Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.

Foucault, Michel. 1981 [1970]. “The Order of Discourse.” Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader. Ed. Robert Young. Boston/London: Routledge: 48-78.

Fowler, Alastair. 2000 [1982]. “Transformations of Genre.” Modern Genre Theory. Ed. David Duff. Harlow: Longman: 232-249.

Fowler, Roger. 1981. Literature as Social Discourse. The Practice of Linguistic Criticism. London: Batsford Academic and Educational.

Gross, Ronald. 1973. [Found Poem]. Open Poetry: Four Anthologies of Expanded Poems. Eds. Ronald Gross and George Quasha. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Holman, Clarence Hunt and William Harmon. 1992. A Handbook to Literature: Based on the Original Edition by William Flint Thrall and Addison Hibbard. Sixth ed. New York: Macmillan.

Jahn, Manfred. "Minima rhetorica."

Jakobson, Roman. 1960. "Linguistics and Poetics: Closing Statement." Style in Language. Ed. Thomas Sebeok. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Kamuf, Peggy, ed. 1991. A Derrida Reader. Between the Blinds. New York/London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Klarer, Mario. 1995. Einführung in die anglistisch-amerikanistische Literaturwissenschaft. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Korte, Barbara; Klaus Peter Müller and Josef Schmied. 1997. Einführung in die Anglistik. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lodge, David, ed. 1988. Modern Criticism and Theory. A Reader. London/New York: Longman.

Moore-Gilbert, Bart. 1997. Postcolonial Theory. Contexts, Practices, Politics. London/New York: Verso.

Nünning, Ansgar, ed. 2001. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Nünning, Ansgar and Andreas H. Jucker. 1999. Orientierung Anglistik/Amerikanistik. Was sie kann, was sie will. Hamburg: Rowohlt.

Nünning, Vera and Ansgar Nünning. 2001. Grundkurs anglistisch-amerikanistische Literaturwissenschaft. Stuttgart: Klett.

Osinski, Jutta. 1998. Einführung in die feministische Literaturwissenschaft. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Pordzik, Ralph. 2002. "After the Linguistic Turn. Neo-Pragmatist Theories of Reading and the Interpretation of Modern Literature." AAA 27.1: 3-13.

Preminger, Alex et al. 1993. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Robbins, Ruth. 2000. Literary Feminisms. London : St. Martin’s Press.

Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1959. Course in General Linguistics. New York: MacGraw-Hill.

Scaif, Ross. A Glossary of RhetoricalTerms with Examples:

Schweikle, Günther and Irmgard Schweikle, eds. 1990. Metzler Literaturlexikon. Begriffe und Definitionen. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Seeber, Hans Ulrich, ed. 1999. Englische Literaturgeschichte. Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler.

Tillyard, E.M.W. 1944. The Elizabethan World Picture. London: Macmillan.

Todorov, Tzvetan. 2000 [1976]. "The Origin of Genres." Modern Genre Theory. Ed. David Duff. Harlow: Longman: 193-208.

Warning, Rainer, ed. 1975. Rezeptionsästhetik. München: Fink.

Watt, Ian. 1957. The Rise of the Novel. Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. London: Chatto and Windus.

Young, Robert J.C. 2000. Postcolonialism. A Historical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.

Zapf, Hubert. 1991. Kurze Geschichte der anglo-amerikanischen Literaturtheorie. München: Fink.



Ackroyd, Peter. 1993 [1989]. First Light. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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Bradbury, Malcolm. 1989 [1975]. The History Man: A Classic Satire of University Life. London: Arena.

Brontë, Anne. 1993 [1848]. The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Ed. Herbert Rosengarten. Oxford, New York: OUP.

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Childers, Erskine. 1995 [1903]. The Riddle of the Sands: A Record of Secret Service. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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Collins, William Wilkie. 1982 [1868]. The Moonstone. Oxford: OUP.

Conrad, Joseph. 1973 [1902]. Heart of Darkness. Ed. Paul O’Prey. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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Dickens, Charles. 1993 [1837]. Pickwick Papers. Ware: Wordsworth.

Dickens, Charles. 1994 [1852-3]. Bleak House. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Dickens, Charles. 1985 [1849-50]. David Copperfield. Ed. Trevor Blount. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Dickens, Charles. 1969 [1854]. Hard Times: For these Times. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Doyle, Roddy. 1998 [1993]. Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha. London: Vintage.

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Hemingway, Ernest. 1977. “The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife.” The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories. London: TriadGrafton: 43-47.

Hemingway, Ernest. 1977. “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.” The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories. London: TriadGrafton: 7-30.

Hope, Anthony. 1994. [1894]. The Prisoner of Zenda. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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Joyce, James. 1988 [1916]. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. London: Paladin.

Joyce, James. 1985 [1914]. Dubliners. London: Granada.

Kipling, Rudyard. 1995 [1897]. Captains Courageous. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Lennox, Charlotte. 1989 [1752]. The Female Quixote. Oxford, New York: OUP.

Munro, Hector Hugh. 1993. “Sredni Vashtar.” The Complete Stories of Saki. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth: 99-102.

Orwell, George. 1989 [1945]. Animal Farm. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Quintilian. 1966-69. Institutia Oratorio. Trans. H.E. Butler. London: Heinemann.

Rogers, Pat, ed. 1994. Alexander Pope: A Selection of His Finest Poems. Oxford, New York: OUP.

Rowling, J.K. 2000. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. London: Bloomsbury.

Rowling, J.K. 1998. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. London: Bloomsbury.

Sayers, Dorothy L. 1981 [1936]. Gaudy Night. London: Prior.

Scott, Walter. 1995 [1817]. Rob Roy. London: Penguin.

Spark, Muriel. 1961. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. London: Macmillan.

Spenser, Edmund. 1977 [1596]. The Faerie Queene. Ed. A.C. Hamilton. London: Longman.

Sterne, Laurence. 1992 [1759-67]. The Life and Opinions of Tristam Shandy, Gentleman. Ed. Ian Campbell Ross. Oxford: OUP.

Swift, Jonathan. 1941. Gulliver’s Travels, The Tale of a Tub, Battle of the Book. Oxford: OUP.

Thackeray, William. 1992 [1848]. Vanity Fair. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth.

Tolkien, J.R.R. 1991 [1954]. The Lord of the Rings. London: HarperCollins

Wilde, Oscar. 1986 [1891]. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Woolf, Virginia. 1992 [1922]. Jacob’s Room. Ed. Sue Roe. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Woolf, Virginia. 1992 [1925]. Mrs Dalloway. Ed. Claire Tomalin. Oxford: OUP.

Woolf, Virginia. 1992 [1928]. Orlando. Ed. Rachel Bowlby. Oxford, New York: OUP.

Woolf, Virginia. 1983 [1933]. Flush: A Biography. London: Hogarth.

Secondary Sources:

Aristotle. 1953. Poetics; Longinus On the Sublime; Demetrius On Style. Trans. W. Hamilton Fyfe. London: Heinmann.

Bonheim, Helmut. 1982. The Narrative Modes: Techniques of the Short-Story. Cambridge: Brewer.

Bonheim, Helmut. 1990. Literary Systematics. Cambridge: Brewer.

Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren. 1943. Understanding Fiction. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Burgess, Anthony. 1973. Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce. London: Deutsch.

Chatman, Seymour. 1978. Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Ithaca : Cornell University Press.

Cohn, Dorrit. 1978. Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Fabian, Bernhard, ed. 1998. Ein anglistischer Grundkurs: Einführung in die Literaturwissenschaft. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Fielitz, Sonja. 2001. Roman: Text & Kontext. Berlin: Cornelsen.

Forster, E.M. 1927. Aspects of the Novel. London: Edward Arnold.

Fricke, Harald and Rüdiger Zymner. 1996. Einübung in die Literaturwissenschaft. Paderborn: Schöningh.

Genette, Gérard. 1980. Narrative Discourse. Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hamburger, Käte. 1973. The Logic of Literature. Trans. Marilynn J. Rose. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP.

Jahn, Manfred. 2002. "Poems, Plays, and Prose: A Guide to the Theory of Literary Genres."

James, Henry. 1948. The Art of Fiction and Other Essays. New York: OUP.

James, William. 1982. Psychology. London: Macmillan.

Korte, Barbara. 1985. “Tiefen- und Oberflächenstrukturen in der Narrativik.” Literatur in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 18 (1985): 331-352.

Lotman, Jurij M. 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte. München: Fink.

McGann, Jerome.1991. The Textual Condition. Princeton: PUP.

Nischik, Reingard M. 1981. Einsträngigkeit und Mehrsträngigkeit der Handlungsführung in literarischen Texten: Dargestellt insbesondere an englischen, amerikanischen und kanadischen Romanen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Tübingen: Narr.

Nischik, Reingard M. 1991. Mentalstilistik: Ein Beitrag zur Stiltheorie und Narrativik: Dargestellt am Erzählwerk Margret Atwoods. Tübingen: Narr.

Nünning, Ansgar et al., eds. 1998. Unreliable Narration: Studien zur Theorie und Praxis unglaubwürdigen Erzählens in der englischsprachigen Erzählliteratur. Trier: WVT.

Pascal, Roy. 1977. The Dual Voice: Free Indirect Speech and its Functioning in the Nineteenth-century European Novel. Manchester : Manchester UP.

Pfister, Manfred. 1988. Das Drama: Theorie und Analyse. München: Fink.

Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith. 1983. Narrative Fiction : Contemporary Poetics. London: Routledge.

Schneider, Ralf. 2000. Grundriß zur kognitiven Theorie der Figurenrezeption am Beispiel des viktorianischen Romans. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

Stanzel, Franz K. 1984. A Theory of Narrative. Trans. Charlotte Goedsche. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Wenzel, Peter. 1998. “Der Text und seine Analyse.” Ein anglistischer Grundkurs. Ed. Bernhard Fabian. Berlin: Erich Schmidt: 149-203.


Primary Texts:

Beckett, Samuel. 1965. Waiting for Godot. A Tragicomedy in Two Acts. London/Boston: Faber.

Bond, Edward. 1965. Saved. London: Methuen.

Gibbons, Brian, ed. 1971. William Congreve. The Way of the World. London: Ernest Benn.

O’Casey, Sean. 1994. Three Plays: Juno and the Paycock, The Shadow of a Gunman, The Plough and the Stars. London: Macmillan Papermac.

Osborne, John. 1957. Look Back in Anger. A Play in Three Acts. London/Boston: Faber.

Salgado, Gamini, ed. 1965. Three Jacobean Tragedies. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Shaffer, Peter. 1974. Equus. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Shakespeare, William. 1994. Complete Works. Ed. Peter Alexander. Glasgow: HarperCollins.

Shakespeare, William. 1982. Hamlet. Ed. Harold Jenkins. Arden Edition. London: Methuen.

Shakespeare, William. 1981. King Richard III. Ed. Anthony Hammond. Arden Edition London/New York: Routledge.

Wilde, Oscar. 1994. Complete Works. Ed. Merlin Holland. Glasgow: HarperCollins.

Secondary Sources:

Asmuth, Bernard. 1997. Einführung in die Dramenanalyse. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Banham, Martin, ed. 1995. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: CUP.

Bevington, David. 1996. "‘But We Are Spirits of Another Sort’: The Dark Side of Love and Magic in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. " New Casebooks. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Ed. Richard Dutton. Basingstoke/London: Macmillan: 24-35.

Berry, Ralph. 1985. Shakespeare and the Awareness of the Audience. London: Macmillan.

Bradbrook, Muriel C. 1963. The Growth and Structure of Elizabethan Comedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Bradbrook, Muriel C. 1980. Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy. Cambridge: CUP.

Brooke, Nicholas. 1979. Horrid Laughter in Jacobean Tragedy. London: Open Books.

Brown, John Russell, ed. 1995. The Oxford Illustrated History of Theatre. Oxford/New York: OUP.

Corrigan, Robert W. 1992. The World of Theatre. Madison: Brown and Benchmark.

Erzgräber, Willi. 1994. “Shakespeares Hamlet als Rachetragödie.” Freiburger Universitätsblätter 125.3: 7-20.

Esslin, Martin. 1974. The Theatre of the Absurd. London: Methuen.

Esslin, Martin. 1977. An Anatomy of Drama. New York: Hill and Wang.

Fielitz, Sonja. 1995. “Grundfragen der Dramenanalyse.” Handbuch Englisch als Fremdsprache. Eds. Rüdiger Ahrens et al. Berlin: Erich Schmidt: 309-313.

Fielitz, Sonja. 1999. Drama. Text und Theater. Berlin: Cornelsen.

Gianakaris, Constantine John. 1977. “Theatre of the Mind in Miller, Osborne and Shaffer.” Renascence 30.1: 33-41.

Goetsch, Paul. 1992. Bauformen des modernen englischen und amerikanischen Dramas. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Goetsch, Paul. 1996. “Die Grenzen der Macht: Prosperos dialogisches Verhalten in The Tempest.” Dialogische Strukturen. Dialogic Structures. Festschrift für Willi Erzgräber zum 70. Geburtstag. Eds. Thomas Kühn and Ursula Schaefer. Tübingen: Gunter Narr: 69-88.

Goldstone, Herbert. 1982. Coping with Vulnerability. The Achievement of John Osborne. New York: University of America Press.

Gurr, Andrew. 1996. The Shakespearian Playing Companies. Oxford: OUP.

Gurr, Andrew and Mariko Ichikawa. 2000. Staging in Shakespeare’s Theatres. Oxford: OUP.

Hartnoll, Phyllis and Peter Found, eds. 1996. The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre. Oxford: OUP.

Hirst, David L., ed. 1985. Edward Bond. New York: Grove Press.

Kaufmann, Ralph James, ed. 1961. Elizabethan Drama: Modern Essays in Criticism. Oxford: OUP.

Kesting, Marianne. 1989. Das epische Theater: Zur Struktur des modernen Dramas. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

Klotz, Volker. 1999. Geschlossene und offene Form im Drama. München: Carl Hanser.

Krieger, Elliot. 1996. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” New Casebooks. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Ed. Richard Dutton. Basingstoke/London: Macmillan: 38-60.

Krieger, Gottfried. 1998. “Dramentheorie und Methoden der Dramenanalyse”. Literaturwissenschaftliche Theorien, Modelle und Methoden. Eine Einführung. Ed. Ansgar Nünning. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier: 69-92.

McAlindon, Thomas. 1986. English Renaissance Tragedy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Müller, Klaus-Peter. 1993. Englische Theater der Gegenwart. Geschichte(n) und Strukturen. Tübingen: Narr.

Pfister, Manfred. 2001. Das Drama. Theorie und Analyse. München: Fink.

Platz-Waury, Elke. 1999. Drama und Theater: Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.

Plett, Heinrich F. 1982. Englisches Drama von Beckett bis Bond. München: Fink.

Richmond, Hugh M. 1989. King Richard III. Manchester/New York: Manchester UP.

Rose, Mark. 1993. “Hamlet and the Shape of Revenge.” Shakespeare’s Middle Tragedies. A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. David Young. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall: 7-17.

Russo, Anna. 1998. Wege des epischen Theaters. Bertold Brecht und Dario Fo. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Schabert, Ina, ed. 2000. Shakespeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit. Der Mensch. Das Werk. Die Nachwelt. Stuttgart: Kröner.

Stamm, Rudolf. 1954. Shakespeare’s Word-Scenery. Zürich: Polygraphischer Verlag.

Suerbaum, Ulrich. 1996. Shakespeares Dramen. Tübingen/Basel: Francke Verlag.

Tomarken, Edward, ed. 1997. As You Like It from 1600 to the Present. Critical Essays. New York/London: Garland.

Trussler, Simon. 1969. John Osborne. Harlow: Longman.

Trussler, Simon, ed. 2000. The Cambridge Illustrated History of British Theatre. Cambridge: CUP.


Primary Texts:

References for primary texts have been abbreviated. Most of the poems quoted can be found in standard anthologies such as the Norton Anthology of Poetry or The New Oxford Book of English Verse. In addition, the following have been used:

Housman, A.E. 1898. A Shropshire Lad. London: Richards Press.

Pope, Alexander. 1965. The Poems. Ed. John Butt. London: Methuen.

Eliot, T.S. 1971. The Complete Poems and Plays: 1909-1950. New York: Harcourt Brace & World.

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