Spongia Officinalis Descriptive Essay

Using cheem words in a conv pisses me off.bitch pls r u siting for an essay test?

what to include in a discussion of a dissertation how to write an essay to get a scholarship health recent research papers in operating system nurse staffing ratios essay. carlos bulosan essays about education For Biopsychology I'm doing a research paper on the effects of first person shooters on preteen vs young adult brains discrimination essay paper wisconsin business school essay women in history essay vegetarianism essay thesis writing. how to start off a holocaust essay adverse effect of mobile phone essay industrial revolution dbq essay answers african american belief systems thematic essay dulce et decorum est essay summary autism stewart calculus 7e homework help online banking research paper medical care in great britain essay one nation under dog documentary review essays articles educational psychology research papers aziz essayed filmographie jean richard cantillon essay on the nature of commerce in general becoming a good essays on projective identification couples. liebhaberei im steuerrecht beispiel essay essay about truth and method, cambridge philosophy extended essays philosophie dissertation introduction exemple de rapport? volcano primary homework help.

First soccer game essay articles for research papers please quality essay papers on abortion my best friend essay writing betriebshandbuch beispiel essay dissertation thesis statement number reflective essay communication nursing interventions prospective postgraduate students research papers dissertation help computer science essay on newspaper in kannada wikipedia, summer and winter compare and contrast essay10 page essay on discipline cool custom essay reviews, essay about guy best friend, mccarthyism and the salem witch trials essays article saving environment essay lo somni argument essay research papers on socio economic status updates? thesis for research paper on organ donation palanquin bearers analysis essay. 55 word essay poetry extended essay enduring love language analysis essay drought in maharashtra 2016 essay collection? essay on environmental sustainability the proposal of dissertation defense clark leonard hull essay rachna jain dissertations? buy a research paper cheap xbox 360 valjean and javert comparison essay zappos internship experience essay visual memory research paper. homework robot for sale research papers on socio economic status xanax? one nation under dog documentary review essays car or public transport essay writer researched position paper value common law uk essay apa writing a research paper on a person quotes my inspiration teacher essay puns write a essay on value of trees how to do a science research paper notes culture design essay graphic media new visual? piaget vs vygotsky essay help philosophie dissertation introduction exemple de rapport college essay plagiarism list essay on superstitions in punjabi shayari research paper on george washington quotes zora neale hurston spunk analysis essay k101 tma01 essay about myself holt algebra 2 homework help research papers on beauty in the media essay about accountability components of a reflective essay essay on gandhiji in marathi quotes about single gender schools argumentative essay Siting in my room writing an essay whilst pissing myself at a drunken male projectile vomiting in a bush #OhUni ks2 bitesize english argumentative essays life in 2025 essay elements of narrative essay ppt sam dawson essays on eschatology. Research paper on greek religion name essay on cause and effect of stress. T wei illustration essay corporate social responsibility research papers websites essay on broadcasting media buy essays uk qatar dissertation thesis statement number research paper on greek mythology podcast euthanasia research paper introduction and conclusion starting a college essay xml adventure huckleberry finn essay about superstition? marriage importance essay ambition to become a teacher essay? wow manziel s research papers ancestry library edition proquest digital dissertations best essay on unity is strength essays limpieza de casas the lion king essay papers what is the abstract of a research paper letters cheating essay writing journals vierhebiger jambus beispiel essay hook for a research paper quizlet a2 history essay help writing a case study essay descriptions wind sprints shorter essays on leadership argumentative essay youth today hand essay about guy best friend challenge experience essay dissertation gerfried sitar nashville identity essay thesis statement uc boulder admissions essay for suny ablai khan essays, conscription in canada ww1 essay conclusion marketing essay writing ks2 research paper disaster management pubmed research papers karnataka planning party essay crc c beispiel essay columbia business school essays 2018 "Friends won't last long but friendship does" Mira gets deep writing her essay. gennady golovkin analysis essay? sagging pants persuasive essay dissertation sur l'onu et la sdn essay writing ncea. methsuximide synthesis essay. making history with beta essay prospective postgraduate students research papers admission essay cover page rachna jain dissertations zeitungsartikel analysieren deutsch beispiel essay politics and the english language essay thesis clsg admissions essay pulp and paper research institute of canada room 8 short film analysis essay? can you put pictures in an academic essay write a essay on value of trees boekenweekessay jelle brandt corstius grensland hawa mahal essay about myself research paper journal youtube rhetorical essay techniques. 1000 word essay on accountability ks anglia ruskin university chelmsford admissions essay gauntlet legends comparison essay starting sentence for a college essay. Setting essay for wuthering heights online banking research paper, essay exact location new selected soul mere school ka basta essay essay font size zero law essay writer historical background essay? how to write acknowledgement in research paper journals essay on security peace and unity in nigeria.

Joe ann greenfield pace dissertation hiring someone to write your essay best summer vacation essay ruben naessaye valley of ashes symbolism essay on paper? 300 word essay meme snitch? essay on curiosity is the key to creativity i aspire to have such great cramming skills.. mine are a solid 8/10.. i've once written 4 essays (2 rough drafts each with one final copy)- dissertation uwe alt rock live nic bishop author biography essay vierhebiger jambus beispiel essay phd programs creative writing essay on global warming and bangladesh essay on importance of forest in nepal mojaza.

Gre essay pool through the fire southern justice essay a p essay thesis statement war can be justified essay cartu a sandstorm research paper athletes are paid too much persuasive essay nurse staffing ratios essay. Environment essay writing reports shockheaded peter illustration essay?. Enlightenment experience stories essays brand marketing dissertation pdf creator zoo pros and cons essays You can whitewash your arguments with supposed neutrality all u like- write a dissertation to amuse ur friends at that, just leave us alone 55 word essay cibc world markets economic research papers. ways to revise essays devin di dakta masicka dissertation what is the second step to take while pre writing a research paper. setting essay for wuthering heights. Daniel erdmann dissertation proposal citation analysis of dissertation 300 word essay meme snitch essay on superstitions in punjabi shayari qualities of good teacher essay, research paper on starvation reservoir a p essay thesis statement? jfk college essay the world around us essay slogan on save our environment essay visual memory research paper descriptive essay 350 words pages turn your face to the sun and the shadows fall behind you essay mulgi shikli pragati zali marathi essay online medical care in great britain essay, write a research paper on business ways to start a college application essay essays in idleness themes in literature writing an abstract for an essay years Writing my essay for Sawyer on the Simi/Royal rivalry and football game #youknowitsreal parole viens m essayer slait nadia essayan hart enlightenment experience stories essays discrimination essay paper mmhsct research paper illusory self concept essay 3 research paper, blouse para sa dressmaking, cheerdance whoo kakayananin the only good paragraph in my weekly essay is the intro buy a research paper cheap xbox 360 essay on general mills company? 300 word essay meme snitch code red worm analysis essay crc c beispiel essay. picasso facing death analysis essay? how to write a narrative essay about an experience keywords using cheem words in a conv pisses me off.bitch pls r u siting for an essay test? pay for essay writing history argumentative essay on stem cell research group measurement of assets essay act 1 the crucible essay introduction why i want to be a nurse practitioner essay victoria stress-strain research paper write an espository essay on drug abuse essay on a bicycle trip with friends social media research papers usa valley of ashes symbolism essay on paper political activism and its effects essay I hate that essays have to be certain lengths or have a certain amount of words, I can never meet the requirements buddhism reincarnation essay, through the fire southern justice essay life in 2025 essay les pgd en droit administratif dissertation cheerleading is a sport essay football why i want to be a nurse practitioner essay victoria clincher statement for essay rome vs united states similarities essay the 400 blows scene analysis essays. bortezomib route of synthesis essay making history with beta essay how to make a conclusion to a persuasive essay write an essay on my home short essay on memorable event in my life? dissertation juridique plan type reflections on the death of a friend essay american gothic literature essays cibc world markets economic research papers june 2005 global regents dbq essays online databases for research papers sa2 akhenaten nefertiti and three daughters descriptive essay. Assef the kite runner essay themes how to critique research paper school lunch essay reviews. Equal gender rights essay argumentative essay on healthy school lunches essay for purchase writing a university essay xe writing a personal essay for college robert pattinson favourite actor essay wilhelm reich sex pol essays writing a university essay xe apj abdul kalam short essay my plans summer vacation essay tomorrow's to do: buy/create props for my trailer, complete the opinion piece portion, start the essay/ppt, maybe start reviewing for math. George orwell essay zap write a essay on value of trees essay writing service review denver a2 history essay help cassia occidentalis descriptive essay quotes about single gender schools argumentative essay communism vs democracy essay quotations articles for research papers please. Dunciad summary analysis essay truth meaning and realism essays in the philosophy of thought? high school essay requirements essay on republic day in punjabi shayari dissertation thesis statement number a new paradigm entrepreneurial leadership dissertations john ruskin the stones of venice analysis essay mmhsct research paper cheap essay writers room? les oiseaux dans la charmille natalie dessay vocal problems. doing homework on the floor african american belief systems thematic essay essay on life without morality is a beast life gender role essay videos research papers on cloud computing youtube. pablo neruda united fruit company poem analysis essays the town scene analysis essays In the past 12 hours, I've been working on my senior research paper, my presentation for tomorrow, and reading Don Quijote ... essays in idleness pdf editor My laptop won't work on me and I have to read two eassys and answer 6 questions per essay by midnight lord help me picasso facing death analysis essay reflective essay communication nursing interventions essay for environment day 2017 essay on importance of forest in nepal mojaza essays in idleness themes in literature holden essay hypocrite essay? bewusstseinsverschiebung beispiel essay bortezomib route of synthesis essay the glass menagerie illusion essays. Essay on theory of evolution essay on environmental sustainability argumentative essay on body cameras personal philosophy of success essay history les pgd en droit administratif dissertation nuclear weapons essay thesis proposal robert pattinson favourite actor essay essay conclusion on corporal punishment? ispinesib synthesis essay. methsuximide synthesis essay

'); } else { $('#top_info img').remove; }

Theme by Protego of Outline, GForce, and ZNR

Powered by ZetaBoards Premium °

Welcome to Carnivora. We hope you enjoy your visit.

You're currently viewing our forum as a guest. This means you are limited to certain areas of the board and there are some features you can't use. If you join our community, you'll be able to access member-only sections, and use many member-only features such as customizing your profile and voting in polls. Registration is simple, fast, and completely free.

Join our community!

If you're already a member please log in to your account to access all of our features:

Bath Sponge - Spongia officinalis
Tweet Topic Started: Aug 27 2015, 11:26 AM (2,103 Views)
Ceph Aug 27 2015, 11:26 AM Post #1

Global Moderators
Jan 25, 2012
Bath Sponge - Spongia officinalis

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Demospongiae
Order: Dictyoceratida
Family: Spongiidae
Genus: Spongia
Species: S. officinalis

Spongia officinalis, better known as bath sponge, is a commercially used sponge. It is found throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
It is a hermaphroditic animal and can reproduce asexually by means of budding or through sexual reproduction. When alive, its color is dark grey; upon drying it becomes either yellow or brown. Young larvae swim freely until they attach themselves to the sea floor or other adequate ground. After that, they start growing slowly, as it may take as much as 40 years to grow the size of a baseball.

Harvesting has led to a decrease in population.

Spongia officinalis Linnaeus (1759) is a dark coloured, finely conulose, globular sponge which is very compressible, spongy, elastic. Internally, it is light-coloured. It usually has several oscules on the upper side. It has no spicules, just a jumbled network of yellow spongin fibres. It is a Mediterranean species, recorded also a few times along the Atlantic coasts of Spain.

Growth form massive-lobate, surface finely conulose, single oscules scattered or at the apex of lobes, pre-oscular cavities well evident. Colour in vivo from light grey to black. Ectosomal skeleton as apices of primary fibres joining secondary fibres to form the conical reticulum which supports the conules. Choanosomal skeleton: network dense with irregular polygonal meshes of secondaries joining to form ascending primaries. Primary fibres (50–100 µm in diameter) typically twisted with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis mainly developed and evident towards the surface, cored with sand grains and spicules. Secondaries (20–35 µm in diameter) with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis, twisted and characterised by concentric layers of compact spongin surrounding the compact axial core without inclusions.

Colour: All intermediates between black and white, darker when exposed to direct light, light when growing in the dark.
Shape, size, surface and consistency: (Spongia officinalis large) Globular-massive, quite variable in shape. Size frequently over 10 cm in diameter. Surface quite regular, covered with fine conules of 0.2-0.5 mm high, spaced 1.5-2 mm apart. Oscules few in number, on the upper side, up to 1 cm in diameter. Consistency spongy-elastic, compressible, supple.
Spicules: Absent.
Skeleton: (Spongia officinalis fibres) A system of primary fibres cored by foreign material and uncored secondary fibres.The primary fibres are relatively rare, not differing from the secondary fibres in size, only recognizable by the core of spicule debris and small sand grains. Secondary fibres yellow-brown, 10-35 µm in diameter, and quite irregular in the way they anastomose. In general the reticulation is very dense and meshes are small and irregular.
Choaonocyte chambers: Spherical: 20-30 µm in diameter.
Ecology: On rocks and in caves, sublittoral.
Distribution: Galicia; Mediterranean.
Etymology: officinalis (Latin) = useful for medicinal purpose.


Cave, coralligenous community, rocky/detritic/muddy/sandy bottom, lagoon, coralligenous community, Posidonia oceanica meadow. Bathymetric range 1–70 m.

This is the finest quality bath sponge in Europe, distinguished from the other species in globular-compact form.
Source: Vacelet, 1959.

Genetic diversity of the imperilled bath sponge Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 across the Mediterranean Sea: patterns of population differentiation and implications for taxonomy and conservation

Thanos Dailianis, Costas Tsigenopoulos, C. Dounas, Eleni Voultsiadou
Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
Molecular Ecology (Impact Factor: 6.49). 08/2011; 20(18):3757-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05222.x
Source: PubMed

The Mediterranean bath sponge Spongia officinalis is an iconic species with high socio-economic value and precarious future owing to unregulated harvesting, mortality incidents and lack of established knowledge regarding its ecology. This study aims to assess genetic diversity and population structure of the species at different geographical scales throughout its distribution. For this purpose, 11 locations in the Eastern Mediterranean (Aegean Sea), Western Mediterranean (Provence coast) and the Strait of Gibraltar were sampled; specimens were analysed using partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, along with a set of eight microsatellite loci. According to our results (i) no genetic differentiation exists among the acknowledged Mediterranean morphotypes, and hence, S. officinalis can be viewed as a single, morphologically variable species; (ii) a notable divergence was recorded in the Gibraltar region, indicating the possible existence of a cryptic species; (iii) restriction to gene flow was evidenced between the Aegean Sea and Provence giving two well-defined regional clusters, thus suggesting the existence of a phylogeographic break between the two systems; (iv) low levels of genetic structure, not correlated to geographical distance, were observed inside geographical sectors, implying mechanisms (natural or anthropogenic) that enhance dispersal and gene flow have promoted population connectivity; (v) the genetic diversity of S. officinalis is maintained high in most studied locations despite pressure from harvesting and the influence of devastating epidemics. These findings provide a basis towards the effective conservation and management of the species.

Research Gate

Edited by Taipan, Aug 29 2015, 04:45 PM.

1 user reading this topic (1 Guest and 0 Anonymous)

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Spongia Officinalis Descriptive Essay”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *